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Bearded Catfish (Scleromystax barbatus)



The Bearded Catfish or Scleromystax barbatus is a freshwater subtropical catfish from the Callichthyidae family. This fish was first discovered in the coastal drainage in Brazil. It has since found its way into the aquarium trade, and like other catfish it is a very hardy addition to any community tank. Also known as the Banded Corydoras this fish can grow up to 4" (10cm) in length. The follow water condition are ideal for this species, 6.0–8.0 pH, a water hardness of 2–25 dGH, and a temperature of 83 °F (28 °C).  A 20 gallon or more tank is well suited for these fish with plenty of hiding spaces.  You can check out the Bearded Catfish in action in the video below...


 If you have any additional information about the Bearded Catfish please leave us a comment below.

Dwarf Wrymouth (Cryptacanthodes aleutensis)


The Dwarf Wrymouth or Cryptacanthodes aleutensis is one of the four species of Wrymouth found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This particular species is found in the Pugent Sound area.  These saltwater fish have an eel-like elongated body that lacks any scales. They have a pinkish or reddish coloration with long dorsal and anal fins that on at the base of the tale. Dwarf Wrymouth grow to about 1' in length and are often seen buried in the soft sentiment at the bottom of the ocean with its eyes pointing upwards waiting for potential prey to swim by.  Pictured below is an unspecified species of Wrymouth with just it's head sticking out of the sand.
In the video below you can see a different species of Wrymouth, the Giant Wrymouth or Cryptacanthodes giganteus...



Little more is known about the Dwarf Wrymouth, but if you have any additional information feel free to share in the comments below.

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Psychedelic Fish (Synchiropus picturatus)


The Psychedelic Fish or Synchiropus picturatus is a rather trippy looking saltwater fish that was first discovered in the Western Pacific Ocean. Also known as the Psychedelic Mandarinfish, Spotted Mandarin, and Picture Dragonet these fish have a psychedelic coloration of blues, oranges, and black spots with a green base.

These fish can be kept as pets, but are considered to be difficult to take care of. They require a tank of 30 gallons or more with live substrate, and of course, many hiding places. Spotted Mandarin fish should be fed a variety of live brine shrimp and live black worms.  They will also graze on live rock and live sand. These fish have been known to spawn in an aquarium without too much difficulty.  The Psychedelic Fish can grow to about 4" in length and require the following water conditions: 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025. If can check out the Pscychedelic Fish in an aquarium in the video below....


If you have any additional information about the Psychedelic Fish please leave us a comment below.



Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)


The Mozambique Tilapia or Oreochromis mossambicus is just one of the 100s of different Cichlid species of fish known as Tilapia. This particular species goes by a couple different names including Blue Kurper, Tilapia Kafuensis, Kafue Bream and the Three Spotted Tilapia. This species is native to Southern Africa and is found in many tropical areas around the world, where it is used for aquaculture. Like other Tilapia, they are able to survive in very harsh conditions compared to many other freshwater fish. It can adapt to temperatures below 50 °F (10 °C) and above 100 °F (38 °C), and can also tolerate brackish waters. They also will eat a large variety of foods, which not only makes them a perfect candidate for fish farming, but also difficult to get rid of when introduced to the wrong area.  These fish are considered to be an invasive species in parts of the world where they have been introduced to control mosquitoes.

These fish are not particular large, only grow to about 14" (35cm) in length and weighing in at 2-1/2 lbs (1.13KG). They can live for about 11 years.  Like other species of Cichlids, these fish are mouth brooders, which means that after the eggs are laid and fertilized the female will then scoop them up into her mouth for protection until they hatch.  You can check out the Mozambique Tilapia underwater in the video below.


If you have any additional information about the Mozambique Tilapia please leave us a comment below.





Walking Shark (Hemiscyllium halmahera)

(© CI/photo by Mark Erdmann)

The Walking Shark or Hemiscyllium halmahera is a newly discovered species from Indonesia. Found off the remote eastern Indonesian island of Halmahera, this is the third species of walking shark in the past six years to be discovered in eastern Indonesia. These sharks will use their fins to “walk” across the ocean floor, searching for food in the darkness of night. This species is harmless to humans and can grow to about 30" (76cm) in length. You can check out some underwater footage of this shark walking in the video below.


Little more is know about this new species. If you have any additional information about the Walking Shark please leave us a comment below.


Hawaiian Dascyllus (Dascyllus albisella)


The Hawaiian Dascyllus or Dascyllus albisella is one of the many different salt water fish that is native only to the islands of Hawaii. The species of Damselfish is sometimes called the Hawaiian Domino Damselfish, and is found in the reefs surrounding the Hawaiian islands. When these fish are young they have a much different appearance then once they are older. They start out with a bright white spot on each side of the fish with a black body that fades to grey like the one pictured above. As if that wasn't enough, the males of this species will also turn almost entirely white during the spawning process.

These fish can grow to about 5" (13cm) and feed on crabs, shrimp larvae, copepods and zooplankton.  You can check out the Dawaiian Dascyllus underwater around some corals in the video below...


If you have any additional information about the Hawaiian Dascyllus please leave us a comment.


Adolfo's Catfish (Corydoras adolfoi)


The Adolfo's catfish or Corydoras adolfoi is a species of freshwater fish that often makes its way in the aquarium trade. This tropical catfish is not very large, only growing to lengths of about 2.2" (5.7cm). They are part of the Callichthyidae family, and first originated in South America, specifically Brazil.  They have a silver body with a black band near the base of the caudal fin and over the eye.

One of the reasons they are so popular in the aquarium trade is their ability to breed in captivity. Simply provide them with a plant or stone for them to attach their eggs to and wait. It only takes about 4 days after the eggs are laid for the fry to hatch. Like other species of Catfish, they are also good at keeping the bottom of the tank clean.  This fish are sometimes called Adolfo's Cory and require a 25 gallon tank with the following water conditions, 70-79F, 6.0-7.5ph.  They are a peaceful community fish that is considered to be very easy to take care of.  You can check out the Adolfo's Catfish in an aquarium in the video below.

 If you have any additional information about the Adolfo's Catfish please leave us a comment below.


Waterfall Climbing Cave Fish (Cryptotora thamicola)


The Waterfall Climbing Cave Fish or Cryptotora thamicola is one of the rarest, and most elusive fish in the world! This species is native only to two caves in Thailand! This freshwater fish has specially developed fins with microscopic hooks that allows it to climb up waterfalls and attach itself to the rock in the fast moving waters! It goes by a couple different names including the Cave Angelfish and the Eyeless Cave Fish. Since this Angelfish spends its entire life in darkness, it has lost its pigmentation, as well as its eyes! You can check out this amazing fish in the videos below...

If you have any additional information about this rare species of fish please leave us a comment below.


California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher)

The California Sheephead or Semicossyphus pulcher is just one of the over 600 different species of Wrasse. This saltwater fish is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean, often in kelp forests or around rocky reefs. The male California Sheephead is black, with a white jaw and red body.  The female is pink in coloration. Juveniles are bright red with a white stripe down its body, and a black spot on the caudal fin. All California Sheepheads start out their lives as females, but then some change to males when they are about half grown. As you can imagine with their great variation in color between the sexes this is quite the transformation to be seen.
These fish can reach lengths of 36" (92cm) and weigh in at 35lbs (16kg). California Sheephead feed on sea urchins, molluscs, lobsters, and crabs. As you can see in the picture below these fish have an impressive set of chompers which allows them to eat such hard shelled crustaceans. 
You can check out the California Sheephead in action along with a bunch of other species in the video below.


If you have any additional information about the California Sheephead please leave us a comment below.




Deepest Living Fish The Hadal Snailfish (Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis)


The Hadal Snailfish or Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis is the deepest living fish known in the world, able to survive at depths exceeding 4.8 miles (7.7 kilometers)! Living so far underwater, these species of Snailfish can withstand pressures equal to 1,600 elephants standing on the roof of a Mini Cooper!  These fish spend their lives in complete darkness and rely on their bodies to sense food that falls from the ocean above.

This species is just one of the over 360 different kinds of Snailfish on our planet.  In 2008 a group in Japan was able to capture these deep sea fish on camera.  Here is their amazing footage...


As you can imagine little is known about this saltwater fish due to its nature habitat.  If you have any additional information about the deepest living fish please leave us a comment below.

Image courtesy Oceanlab, University of Aberdeen




Salmon Shark (Lamna ditropis)


The Salmon Shark or Lamna ditropis is a species of shark that is found exclusively in the Northern Pacific Ocean. This shark is an apex predator that feeds on Sablefish, Herring, Squid, and of course Salmon. Growing to about 10 ft (3m) and weighing in at almost 1000lbs (450kg) these sharks are sometimes confused with the much more dangerous Great White Shark. They have a white underbelly with the rest of their body a grey to black coloration along with some dark patches.  For an in depth look at this species you can watch a 47 minute documentary by National Geographic in the video below.


One characteristic that sets the Salmon Shark apart from other species is their ability to regulate their body temperature. This helps them survive farther north then almost every species of shark with the exception of the Greenland Shark. They have vascular heat ex-changers known as retia mirabilia, that keeps the blood moving toward extremities. When the blood returns it is warmed, which keeps the core of the shark heated.

Salmon Sharks are ovoviviparous, which means the mother carries the eggs in her belly until they are ready to be born.  A litter size of 2 to 6 pups is not uncommon.  Once hatched they will feed off their embryo until they are ready to feed on their own.

If you have any additional information about the Salmon Shark please leave us a comment below.



Blue Parrotfish (Scarus coeruleus)


The Blue Parrotfish or Scarus coeruleus is just one of the over 90 different species of Parrotfish that inhabit our oceans. As you can see these saltwater fish get their names from their deep blue coloration.

Like other species of Parrot Fish they develop a snout over their lifetime that allows them to feed on coral. They can grow to be quite large, 3' (1m) is about as big as you will find them. You can check out the Blue Parrotfish underwater in the video below.


If you have any additional information about the Blue Parrotfish please leave us a comment below.



Bluespotted Cornetfish (Fistularia commersonii)

The Bluespotted Cornetfish or Fistularia commersonii is an elongated saltwater fish from the Fistulariidae family which include pipefishes and seahorses. This fish has an eel like appearance, but can be differentiated by its long snout, large eyes, distinct dorsal and anal fins, and a forked caudal fin whose center rays form a rather lengthy filament. This filament is lined with sensory pores, and is thought to serve as a long-range sensory system for detecting prey.

Bluespotted Cornetfish are found almost exclusively in and around reefs on the western coast of the Atlantic Ocean, and off the western coast of Africa. They feed on small fish and invertebrates, and can grow to 5-1/4' (1.6 meters). These fish go by several different names including Commerson's Cornetfish, Smooth Flutemouth, Flutefish, Smooth Cornetfish, Reef Cornetfish, Coronet and Arrowshaft.  You can check out the Bluespotted Cornetfish underwater in the video below.


If you have any additional information about the Bluespotted Cornetfish please leave us a comment below.



Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus)

The Kelp Bass or Paralabrax clathratus is a saltwater fish that is found in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. This fish is also called the Calico Bass, and is found in and around kelp beds. They are also seen in rocky, shallow waters.  You can check out the Calico Bass in action in the video below.

Kelp Bass can reach lengths of about 28-1/2" (72cm), and can live to be about 34 years old. These fish are quite edible and are also fun to catch, with a decent fight for their size. This fish will feed on crustaceans, squid and small fish. They will spawn in the warmer summer months in deep water. Once the babies are developed they will take shelter in the kelp. They are known to become quite territorial while spawning and there are even a few storied of these fish biting humans.
If you have any additional information about the Kelp Bass please leave us a comment below.

Longnose Sawshark (Pristiophorus cirratus)

The Longnose Sawshark or Pristiophorus cirratus is arguably one of the strangest looking fish in all of our oceans! Not only does this saltwater fish have an EXTREMELY long snout that is adorned with saw-like teeth, but it also has a set of barbels that hang down and help this fish detect movement on the sandy bottom. This species of shark will cruise the bottom using its rostrum and barbels to search for any vibrations or electrical fields in the water. They use their rostrum to poke around on the bottom and then slash at any potential meals!

Also known as the Common Sawshark, this species is from the family Pristiophoridae, and is found in the eastern Indian Ocean around southern Australia.  Often confused with Sawfish, they can be differentiated by the location of their gills, and the lack of barbels in the Sawfish.  They can reach lengths of up to 4-1/2' (1.4 meters) and are found in depths of between 40 and 310 meters.  Feeding on small fish and crustaceans, these sharks are not considered to be dangerous to humans, despite their frightening appearance.   You can check out the Longnose Sawshark in the video below.

Longnose Sawsharks are ovoviviparous, giving birth to between three and twenty-two pups in each litter. The pups are born with their teeth folded against their snout, which protects the mother from harm while they are developing inside. A new born pup is between 11-15" long.  They can live to the ripe old age of 15.   

If you have any additional information about the Longnose Sawshark please leave us a comment below.




Penguin Fish (Thayeria boehlkei)

The Penguin Fish or Thayeria boehlkei is just one of the many different species of Tetra fish.  Tetras are from the Characidae family, and can be distinguished from other fish by the presence of a small adipose fin between the dorsal and caudal fins.  They all originate in the tropical freshwaters of the Africa, Central America and South America.

Penguin Fish go by a few different names including Blackline Penguinfish, Blackline Thayeria, Hockey-Stick Tetra, and Penguin Tetra.  These fish are small, only growing to about 3" in length.  They are the perfect starter fish, able to survive in the following water conditions, 64-82° F, KH 4-8 and pH 5.8-8.5.  Penguin Fish work well in a group of six or more, and are great for a community fish tank.  They will accept a variety of foods, and are very eager feeders making them one of the easiest freshwater aquarium fish to care for.  Providing them with live plants and plenty of hiding spaces will keep them happy, and stress free.  You can see how the Penguin Fish would look swimming in your tank in the video below. 
 

It is possible to breed Penguin Fish in an aquarium setting.  Slightly acidic water is said to help encourage the breeding process.  The female's belly will grow larger and she will eventually lay her eggs.  It only takes about 15 hours for the eggs to hatch, and then the baby fry should be separated from their parents or risk being eaten.

If you have any additional information about the Penguin Fish please leave us a comment below. 



       

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